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lpi2:start [2019/01/18 17:32]
ingo_wichmann [200.1 Measure and Troubleshoot Resource Usage (weight: 6)]
lpi2:start [2019/01/18 17:37]
ingo_wichmann
Zeile 20: Zeile 20:
   * Estimate throughput and identify bottlenecks in a system including networking.   * Estimate throughput and identify bottlenecks in a system including networking.
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * iostat   * iostat
Zeile 40: Zeile 40:
   * blocks out    * blocks out 
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[prozesse|ps]]   * [[prozesse|ps]]
   * [[lsof]]   * [[lsof]]
Zeile 51: Zeile 51:
 Candidates should be able to monitor resource usage to predict future resource needs. Candidates should be able to monitor resource usage to predict future resource needs.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Use monitoring and measurement tools to monitor IT infrastructure usage.   * Use monitoring and measurement tools to monitor IT infrastructure usage.
Zeile 59: Zeile 59:
   * Awareness of monitoring solutions such as Icinga2, Nagios, collectd, MRTG and Cacti   * Awareness of monitoring solutions such as Icinga2, Nagios, collectd, MRTG and Cacti
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * diagnose   * diagnose
Zeile 65: Zeile 65:
   * resource exhaustion   * resource exhaustion
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
  
   * [[collectd]]   * [[collectd]]
Zeile 74: Zeile 74:
 Candidates should be able to utilise kernel components that are necessary to specific hardware, hardware drivers, system resources and requirements. This objective includes implementing different types of kernel images, understanding stable and longterm kernels and patches, as well as using kernel modules. Candidates should be able to utilise kernel components that are necessary to specific hardware, hardware drivers, system resources and requirements. This objective includes implementing different types of kernel images, understanding stable and longterm kernels and patches, as well as using kernel modules.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Kernel 2.6.x, 3.x and 4.x documentation   * Kernel 2.6.x, 3.x and 4.x documentation
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /​usr/​src/​linux   * /​usr/​src/​linux
Zeile 86: Zeile 86:
   * xz compression   * xz compression
  
-'''​Dokumentation:' ''​+==Dokumentation==
  
   * [[https://​www.kernel.org/​doc/​Documentation/​x86/​boot.txt|zImage vs. bzImage]]   * [[https://​www.kernel.org/​doc/​Documentation/​x86/​boot.txt|zImage vs. bzImage]]
Zeile 94: Zeile 94:
 Candidates should be able to properly configure a kernel to include or disable specific features of the Linux kernel as necessary. This objective includes compiling and recompiling the Linux kernel as needed, updating and noting changes in a new kernel, creating an initrd image and installing new kernels. Candidates should be able to properly configure a kernel to include or disable specific features of the Linux kernel as necessary. This objective includes compiling and recompiling the Linux kernel as needed, updating and noting changes in a new kernel, creating an initrd image and installing new kernels.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * /​usr/​src/​linux/​   * /​usr/​src/​linux/​
Zeile 107: Zeile 107:
   * Awareness of dracut   * Awareness of dracut
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * mkinitrd   * mkinitrd
Zeile 121: Zeile 121:
   * dkms   * dkms
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[lpi1::​make]]   * [[lpi1::​make]]
   * [[lpi1::​kernel]]   * [[lpi1::​kernel]]
Zeile 132: Zeile 132:
 Candidates should be able to manage and/or query a 2.6.x, 3.x or 4.x kernel and its loadable modules. Candidates should be able to identify and correct common boot and run time issues. Candidates should understand device detection and management using udev. This objective includes troubleshooting udev rules. ​ Candidates should be able to manage and/or query a 2.6.x, 3.x or 4.x kernel and its loadable modules. Candidates should be able to identify and correct common boot and run time issues. Candidates should understand device detection and management using udev. This objective includes troubleshooting udev rules. ​
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Use command-line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules.   * Use command-line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules.
Zeile 144: Zeile 144:
   * udev rules   * udev rules
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /​lib/​modules/​kernel-version/​modules.dep   * /​lib/​modules/​kernel-version/​modules.dep
Zeile 166: Zeile 166:
   * /​etc/​udev ​   * /​etc/​udev ​
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[lpi1:​kernel]]   * [[lpi1:​kernel]]
   * [[udev]]   * [[udev]]
Zeile 176: Zeile 176:
 Candidates should be able to query and modify the behaviour of system services at various targets / run levels. A thorough understanding of the systemd, SysV Init and the Linux boot process is required. This objective includes interacting with systemd targets and SysV init run levels. ​ Candidates should be able to query and modify the behaviour of system services at various targets / run levels. A thorough understanding of the systemd, SysV Init and the Linux boot process is required. This objective includes interacting with systemd targets and SysV init run levels. ​
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Systemd   * Systemd
Zeile 182: Zeile 182:
   * Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB)    * Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB) 
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /​usr/​lib/​systemd/​   * /​usr/​lib/​systemd/​
Zeile 196: Zeile 196:
   * init and telinit   * init and telinit
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
  
   * [[lpi1:​init|SysV-init]]   * [[lpi1:​init|SysV-init]]
Zeile 204: Zeile 204:
 Candidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and during recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init-related kernel options. Candidates should be able to determine the cause of errors in loading and usage of bootloaders. GRUB version 2 and GRUB Legacy are the bootloaders of interest. Both BIOS and UEFI systems are covered. ​ Candidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and during recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init-related kernel options. Candidates should be able to determine the cause of errors in loading and usage of bootloaders. GRUB version 2 and GRUB Legacy are the bootloaders of interest. Both BIOS and UEFI systems are covered. ​
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * BIOS and UEFI   * BIOS and UEFI
Zeile 218: Zeile 218:
   * Use systemd rescue and emergency modes.   * Use systemd rescue and emergency modes.
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * mount   * mount
Zeile 233: Zeile 233:
   * systemctl   * systemctl
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
  
   * [[initrd]]   * [[initrd]]
Zeile 244: Zeile 244:
 Candidates should be aware of other bootloaders and their major features. Candidates should be aware of other bootloaders and their major features.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * SYSLINUX, ISOLINUX, PXELINUX   * SYSLINUX, ISOLINUX, PXELINUX
Zeile 250: Zeile 250:
   * Awareness of systemd-boot and U-Boot   * Awareness of systemd-boot and U-Boot
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * syslinux   * syslinux
Zeile 263: Zeile 263:
   * uefi/​grubx64.efi   * uefi/​grubx64.efi
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[pxe-bootserver]]   * [[pxe-bootserver]]
   * [[shim.efi]]   * [[shim.efi]]
Zeile 273: Zeile 273:
 Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types. Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * The concept of the fstab configuration   * The concept of the fstab configuration
Zeile 280: Zeile 280:
   * Understanding of systemd mount units   * Understanding of systemd mount units
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /etc/fstab   * /etc/fstab
Zeile 291: Zeile 291:
   * swapoff ​   * swapoff ​
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
  
   * [[mount und fstab]]   * [[mount und fstab]]
Zeile 298: Zeile 298:
 Candidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating standard filesystems and monitoring SMART devices. Candidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating standard filesystems and monitoring SMART devices.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Tools and utilities to manipulate and ext2, ext3 and ext4   * Tools and utilities to manipulate and ext2, ext3 and ext4
Zeile 305: Zeile 305:
   * Awareness of ZFS   * Awareness of ZFS
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * mkfs (mkfs.*)   * mkfs (mkfs.*)
Zeile 315: Zeile 315:
   * smartd, smartctl   * smartd, smartctl
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[xfs]]   * [[xfs]]
   * [[ext]]   * [[ext]]
Zeile 326: Zeile 326:
 Candidates should be able to configure automount filesystems using AutoFS. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs and a basic feature knowledge of encrypted filesystems. Candidates should be able to configure automount filesystems using AutoFS. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs and a basic feature knowledge of encrypted filesystems.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * autofs configuration files   * autofs configuration files
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   * Basic feature knowledge of data encryption (dm-crypt / LUKS)   * Basic feature knowledge of data encryption (dm-crypt / LUKS)
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /​etc/​auto.master   * /​etc/​auto.master
Zeile 342: Zeile 342:
   * cryptsetup   * cryptsetup
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
  
   * [[autofs]]   * [[autofs]]
Zeile 356: Zeile 356:
 Candidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes using and configuring RAID 0, 1 and 5. Candidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes using and configuring RAID 0, 1 and 5.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Software RAID configuration files and utilities ​   * Software RAID configuration files and utilities ​
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * mdadm.conf   * mdadm.conf
Zeile 367: Zeile 367:
   * partition type 0xFD    * partition type 0xFD 
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[raid]]   * [[raid]]
  
Zeile 374: Zeile 374:
 Candidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various drives. This objective includes software tools to view & modify hard disk settings including iSCSI devices. Candidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various drives. This objective includes software tools to view & modify hard disk settings including iSCSI devices.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Tools and utilities to configure DMA for IDE devices including ATAPI and SATA   * Tools and utilities to configure DMA for IDE devices including ATAPI and SATA
Zeile 383: Zeile 383:
   * Awareness of SAN, including relevant protocols (AoE, FCoE)   * Awareness of SAN, including relevant protocols (AoE, FCoE)
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * hdparm, sdparm   * hdparm, sdparm
Zeile 394: Zeile 394:
   * WWID, WWN, LUN numbers   * WWID, WWN, LUN numbers
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[hdparm]]   * [[hdparm]]
   * [[SSD]]   * [[SSD]]
Zeile 404: Zeile 404:
 Candidates should be able to create and remove logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes. This objective includes snapshots and resizing logical volumes. Candidates should be able to create and remove logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes. This objective includes snapshots and resizing logical volumes.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Tools in the LVM suite   * Tools in the LVM suite
Zeile 411: Zeile 411:
   * Activating volume groups ​   * Activating volume groups ​
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /sbin/pv*   * /sbin/pv*
Zeile 420: Zeile 420:
   * lvm.conf   * lvm.conf
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
  
   * [[lpi1:​lvm]]   * [[lpi1:​lvm]]
Zeile 429: Zeile 429:
 Candidates should be able to configure a network device to be able to connect to a local, wired or wireless, and a wide-area network. This objective includes being able to communicate between various subnets within a single network including both IPv4 and IPv6 networks. Candidates should be able to configure a network device to be able to connect to a local, wired or wireless, and a wide-area network. This objective includes being able to communicate between various subnets within a single network including both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces   * Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
   * Configuring basic access to wireless networks with iw, iwconfig and iwlist   * Configuring basic access to wireless networks with iw, iwconfig and iwlist
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * ip   * ip
Zeile 444: Zeile 444:
   * iwlist   * iwlist
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[lpi1:​netzwerk]]   * [[lpi1:​netzwerk]]
   * [[lpi2:​ipv6]]   * [[lpi2:​ipv6]]
Zeile 454: Zeile 454:
 Candidates should be able to configure a network device to implement various network authentication schemes. This objective includes configuring a multi-homed network device and resolving communication problems. Candidates should be able to configure a network device to implement various network authentication schemes. This objective includes configuring a multi-homed network device and resolving communication problems.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Utilities to manipulate routing tables   * Utilities to manipulate routing tables
Zeile 461: Zeile 461:
   * Utilities to monitor and analyse the TCP/IP traffic   * Utilities to monitor and analyse the TCP/IP traffic
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * ip   * ip
Zeile 475: Zeile 475:
   * nmap   * nmap
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[tcpdump]]   * [[tcpdump]]
  
Zeile 482: Zeile 482:
 Candidates should be able to identify and correct common network setup issues, to include knowledge of locations for basic configuration files and commands. Candidates should be able to identify and correct common network setup issues, to include knowledge of locations for basic configuration files and commands.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Location and content of access restriction files   * Location and content of access restriction files
Zeile 493: Zeile 493:
   * Awareness of NetworkManager and its impact on network configuration   * Awareness of NetworkManager and its impact on network configuration
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * ip   * ip
Zeile 512: Zeile 512:
   * /​etc/​hosts.allow,​ /​etc/​hosts.deny   * /​etc/​hosts.allow,​ /​etc/​hosts.deny
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[lpi1:​tcpwrapper]]   * [[lpi1:​tcpwrapper]]
   * [[lpi2:​netstat]]   * [[lpi2:​netstat]]
Zeile 524: Zeile 524:
 Candidates should be able to build and install an executable program from source. This objective includes being able to unpack a file of sources. Candidates should be able to build and install an executable program from source. This objective includes being able to unpack a file of sources.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Unpack source code using common compression and archive utilities.   * Unpack source code using common compression and archive utilities.
Zeile 531: Zeile 531:
   * Know where sources are stored by default. ​   * Know where sources are stored by default. ​
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /usr/src/   * /usr/src/
Zeile 545: Zeile 545:
   * patch   * patch
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[Quellpakete]]   * [[Quellpakete]]
   * [[lpi1:​make]]   * [[lpi1:​make]]
Zeile 555: Zeile 555:
 Candidates should be able to use system tools to back up important system data.  Candidates should be able to use system tools to back up important system data. 
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Knowledge about directories that have to be include in backups   * Knowledge about directories that have to be include in backups
Zeile 564: Zeile 564:
   * Partially or fully restore backups. ​   * Partially or fully restore backups. ​
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /bin/sh   * /bin/sh
Zeile 573: Zeile 573:
   * rsync    * rsync 
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[tar]]   * [[tar]]
   * [[rsync]]   * [[rsync]]
Zeile 581: Zeile 581:
 Candidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system. ​ Candidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system. ​
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Automate communication with users through logon messages.   * Automate communication with users through logon messages.
   * Inform active users of system maintenance ​   * Inform active users of system maintenance ​
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /etc/issue   * /etc/issue
Zeile 605: Zeile 605:
 Candidates should be able to configure BIND to function as an authoritative and as a recursive, caching-only DNS server. This objective includes the ability to manage a running server and configuring logging. ​ Candidates should be able to configure BIND to function as an authoritative and as a recursive, caching-only DNS server. This objective includes the ability to manage a running server and configuring logging. ​
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * BIND 9.x configuration files, terms and utilities   * BIND 9.x configuration files, terms and utilities
Zeile 612: Zeile 612:
   * Awareness of dnsmasq, djbdns and PowerDNS as alternate name servers   * Awareness of dnsmasq, djbdns and PowerDNS as alternate name servers
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /​etc/​named.conf   * /​etc/​named.conf
Zeile 621: Zeile 621:
   * dig   * dig
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[dig]]   * [[dig]]
   * [[bind caching only| bind als caching only Nameserver]]   * [[bind caching only| bind als caching only Nameserver]]
Zeile 630: Zeile 630:
 Candidates should be able to create a zone file for a forward or reverse zone and hints for root level servers. This objective includes setting appropriate values for records, adding hosts in zones and adding zones to the DNS. A candidate should also be able to delegate zones to another DNS server. Candidates should be able to create a zone file for a forward or reverse zone and hints for root level servers. This objective includes setting appropriate values for records, adding hosts in zones and adding zones to the DNS. A candidate should also be able to delegate zones to another DNS server.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * BIND 9 configuration files, terms and utilities   * BIND 9 configuration files, terms and utilities
Zeile 637: Zeile 637:
   * Various methods to add a new host in the zone files, including reverse zones    * Various methods to add a new host in the zone files, including reverse zones 
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /var/named/   * /var/named/
Zeile 647: Zeile 647:
  
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[bind|Nameserver bind]]   * [[bind|Nameserver bind]]
  
Zeile 654: Zeile 654:
 Candidates should be able to configure a DNS server to run as a non-root user and run in a chroot jail. This objective includes secure exchange of data between DNS servers. Candidates should be able to configure a DNS server to run as a non-root user and run in a chroot jail. This objective includes secure exchange of data between DNS servers.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * BIND 9 configuration files   * BIND 9 configuration files
Zeile 663: Zeile 663:
   * Awareness of DANE and related records   * Awareness of DANE and related records
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /​etc/​named.conf   * /​etc/​named.conf
Zeile 672: Zeile 672:
  
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[bind absichern]]   * [[bind absichern]]
   * [[bind-TSIG]]   * [[bind-TSIG]]
Zeile 682: Zeile 682:
 Candidates should be able to install and configure a web server. This objective includes monitoring the server'​s load and performance,​ restricting client user access, configuring support for scripting languages as modules and setting up client user authentication. Also included is configuring server options to restrict usage of resources. Candidates should be able to configure a web server to use virtual hosts and customise file access. ​ Candidates should be able to install and configure a web server. This objective includes monitoring the server'​s load and performance,​ restricting client user access, configuring support for scripting languages as modules and setting up client user authentication. Also included is configuring server options to restrict usage of resources. Candidates should be able to configure a web server to use virtual hosts and customise file access. ​
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Apache 2.4 configuration files, terms and utilities   * Apache 2.4 configuration files, terms and utilities
Zeile 693: Zeile 693:
   * Using redirect statements in Apache'​s configuration files to customise file access ​   * Using redirect statements in Apache'​s configuration files to customise file access ​
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * access logs and error logs   * access logs and error logs
Zeile 704: Zeile 704:
   * httpd, apache2 ​   * httpd, apache2 ​
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[apache]]   * [[apache]]
   * [[apache_module|Apache Module]]   * [[apache_module|Apache Module]]
Zeile 716: Zeile 716:
 Candidates should be able to configure a web server to provide HTTPS. ​ Candidates should be able to configure a web server to provide HTTPS. ​
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * SSL configuration files, tools and utilities   * SSL configuration files, tools and utilities
Zeile 725: Zeile 725:
   * Security issues in SSL use, disable insecure protocols and ciphers   * Security issues in SSL use, disable insecure protocols and ciphers
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * Apache2 configuration files   * Apache2 configuration files
Zeile 734: Zeile 734:
   * SSLProtocol,​ SSLCipherSuite,​ ServerTokens,​ ServerSignature,​ TraceEnable   * SSLProtocol,​ SSLCipherSuite,​ ServerTokens,​ ServerSignature,​ TraceEnable
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
  
   * [[lpi2:​ssl]]   * [[lpi2:​ssl]]
Zeile 743: Zeile 743:
 Candidates should be able to install and configure a proxy server, including access policies, authentication and resource usage. Candidates should be able to install and configure a proxy server, including access policies, authentication and resource usage.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Squid 3.x configuration files, terms and utilities   * Squid 3.x configuration files, terms and utilities
Zeile 750: Zeile 750:
   * Layout and content of ACL in the Squid configuration files    * Layout and content of ACL in the Squid configuration files 
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * squid.conf   * squid.conf
Zeile 756: Zeile 756:
   * http_access ​   * http_access ​
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[squid]]   * [[squid]]
 ==== 208.4 Implementing Nginx as a web server and a reverse proxy (weight: 2) ==== ==== 208.4 Implementing Nginx as a web server and a reverse proxy (weight: 2) ====
Zeile 762: Zeile 762:
 Candidates should be able to install and configure a reverse proxy server, Nginx. ​ Basic configuration of Nginx as a HTTP server is included. ​ Candidates should be able to install and configure a reverse proxy server, Nginx. ​ Basic configuration of Nginx as a HTTP server is included. ​
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Nginx   * Nginx
Zeile 768: Zeile 768:
   * Basic Web Server   * Basic Web Server
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /etc/nginx/   * /etc/nginx/
   * nginx   * nginx
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
  
   * [[nginx]]   * [[nginx]]
Zeile 782: Zeile 782:
 Candidates should be able to set up a SAMBA server for various clients. This objective includes setting up Samba as a standalone server as well as integrating Samba as a member in an Active Directory. Furthermore,​ the configuration of simple CIFS and printer shares is covered. Also covered is a configuring a Linux client to use a Samba server. Troubleshooting installations is also tested.  ​ Candidates should be able to set up a SAMBA server for various clients. This objective includes setting up Samba as a standalone server as well as integrating Samba as a member in an Active Directory. Furthermore,​ the configuration of simple CIFS and printer shares is covered. Also covered is a configuring a Linux client to use a Samba server. Troubleshooting installations is also tested.  ​
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Samba 4 documentation   * Samba 4 documentation
Zeile 791: Zeile 791:
   * User-Level and Share-Level security and AD scurity ​   * User-Level and Share-Level security and AD scurity ​
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * smbd, nmbd, winbindd   * smbd, nmbd, winbindd
Zeile 802: Zeile 802:
   * /​var/​log/​samba/ ​   * /​var/​log/​samba/ ​
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[samba]]   * [[samba]]
   * [[samba-pdc]]   * [[samba-pdc]]
Zeile 813: Zeile 813:
 Candidates should be able to export filesystems using NFS. This objective includes access restrictions,​ mounting an NFS filesystem on a client and securing NFS. Candidates should be able to export filesystems using NFS. This objective includes access restrictions,​ mounting an NFS filesystem on a client and securing NFS.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * NFS version 3 configuration files   * NFS version 3 configuration files
Zeile 822: Zeile 822:
   * Awareness of NFSv4   * Awareness of NFSv4
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /​etc/​exports   * /​etc/​exports
Zeile 834: Zeile 834:
   * portmapper   * portmapper
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[lpi1:​tcpwrapper]]   * [[lpi1:​tcpwrapper]]
   * [[lpi1:​nfs|NFS v3 Server]]   * [[lpi1:​nfs|NFS v3 Server]]
Zeile 845: Zeile 845:
 Candidates should be able to configure a DHCP server. This objective includes setting default and per client options, adding static hosts and BOOTP hosts. Also included is configuring a DHCP relay agent and maintaining the DHCP server. Candidates should be able to configure a DHCP server. This objective includes setting default and per client options, adding static hosts and BOOTP hosts. Also included is configuring a DHCP relay agent and maintaining the DHCP server.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * DHCP configuration files, terms and utilities   * DHCP configuration files, terms and utilities
Zeile 851: Zeile 851:
   *  Awareness of DHCPv6 and IPv6 Router Advertisements   *  Awareness of DHCPv6 and IPv6 Router Advertisements
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * dhcpd.conf   * dhcpd.conf
Zeile 861: Zeile 861:
   * radvd.conf ​   * radvd.conf ​
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[dhcp]]   * [[dhcp]]
   * [[dhcp-relay]]   * [[dhcp-relay]]
Zeile 870: Zeile 870:
 The candidate should be able to configure PAM to support authentication using various available methods. This includes basic SSSD functionality. ​ The candidate should be able to configure PAM to support authentication using various available methods. This includes basic SSSD functionality. ​
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * PAM configuration files, terms and utilities   * PAM configuration files, terms and utilities
Zeile 876: Zeile 876:
   * Use sssd for LDAP authentication ​   * Use sssd for LDAP authentication ​
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /etc/pam.d/   * /etc/pam.d/
Zeile 884: Zeile 884:
   * sssd.conf ​   * sssd.conf ​
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
  
   * [[pam]]   * [[pam]]
Zeile 891: Zeile 891:
 Candidates should be able to perform queries and updates to an LDAP server. Also included is importing and adding items, as well as adding and managing users. Candidates should be able to perform queries and updates to an LDAP server. Also included is importing and adding items, as well as adding and managing users.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * LDAP utilities for data management and queries   * LDAP utilities for data management and queries
Zeile 897: Zeile 897:
   * Querying the LDAP directory ​   * Querying the LDAP directory ​
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * ldapsearch   * ldapsearch
Zeile 909: Zeile 909:
 Candidates should be able to configure a basic OpenLDAP server including knowledge of LDIF format and essential access controls. Candidates should be able to configure a basic OpenLDAP server including knowledge of LDIF format and essential access controls.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * OpenLDAP   * OpenLDAP
Zeile 920: Zeile 920:
   * Object IDs, Attributes and Classes   * Object IDs, Attributes and Classes
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * slapd   * slapd
Zeile 931: Zeile 931:
   * loglevel   * loglevel
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[ldap | OpenLDAP Grundinstallation]]   * [[ldap | OpenLDAP Grundinstallation]]
   * [[ldap-config]]   * [[ldap-config]]
Zeile 945: Zeile 945:
 Candidates should be able to manage an e-mail server, including the configuration of e-mail aliases, e-mail quotas and virtual e-mail domains. This objective includes configuring internal e-mail relays and monitoring e-mail servers. Candidates should be able to manage an e-mail server, including the configuration of e-mail aliases, e-mail quotas and virtual e-mail domains. This objective includes configuring internal e-mail relays and monitoring e-mail servers.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Configuration files for postfix   * Configuration files for postfix
Zeile 952: Zeile 952:
   * Awareness of sendmail and exim    * Awareness of sendmail and exim 
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * Configuration files and commands for postfix   * Configuration files and commands for postfix
Zeile 961: Zeile 961:
   * mail-related logs in /​var/​log/ ​   * mail-related logs in /​var/​log/ ​
  
-'''​Beispiel:' ''​+==Beispiel==
   * [[lpi1:​mail]]   * [[lpi1:​mail]]
   * [[postfix]]   * [[postfix]]
Zeile 971: Zeile 971:
 Candidates should be able to implement client e-mail management software to filter, sort and monitor incoming user e-mail. ​ Candidates should be able to implement client e-mail management software to filter, sort and monitor incoming user e-mail. ​
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Understanding of Sieve functionality,​ syntax and operators   * Understanding of Sieve functionality,​ syntax and operators
Zeile 977: Zeile 977:
   * Awareness of procmail   * Awareness of procmail
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * Conditions and comparison operators   * Conditions and comparison operators
Zeile 983: Zeile 983:
   * Dovecot vacation extension   * Dovecot vacation extension
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[wpde>​Sieve|Syntax Sieve Filtersprache]]   * [[wpde>​Sieve|Syntax Sieve Filtersprache]]
   * [[dovecot-sieve]]   * [[dovecot-sieve]]
Zeile 991: Zeile 991:
 Candidates should be able to install and configure POP and IMAP daemons. ​ Candidates should be able to install and configure POP and IMAP daemons. ​
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Dovecot IMAP and POP3 configuration and administration   * Dovecot IMAP and POP3 configuration and administration
Zeile 997: Zeile 997:
   * Awareness of Courier   * Awareness of Courier
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /​etc/​dovecot/​   * /​etc/​dovecot/​
Zeile 1004: Zeile 1004:
   * doveadm   * doveadm
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[https://​wiki2.dovecot.org/​ConfigFile|Syntax der Dovecot Konfigurationsdatei]]   * [[https://​wiki2.dovecot.org/​ConfigFile|Syntax der Dovecot Konfigurationsdatei]]
   * [[dovecot-imapd]]   * [[dovecot-imapd]]
Zeile 1016: Zeile 1016:
 Candidates should be able to configure a system to perform network address translation (NAT, IP masquerading) and state its significance in protecting a network. This objective includes configuring port redirection,​ managing filter rules and averting attacks. Candidates should be able to configure a system to perform network address translation (NAT, IP masquerading) and state its significance in protecting a network. This objective includes configuring port redirection,​ managing filter rules and averting attacks.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * iptables and ip6tables configuration files, tools and utilities   * iptables and ip6tables configuration files, tools and utilities
Zeile 1025: Zeile 1025:
   * Save and reload filtering configurations ​   * Save and reload filtering configurations ​
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /​proc/​sys/​net/​ipv4   * /​proc/​sys/​net/​ipv4
Zeile 1033: Zeile 1033:
   * ip6tables ​   * ip6tables ​
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[iptables]]   * [[iptables]]
   * [[ip6tables]]   * [[ip6tables]]
Zeile 1040: Zeile 1040:
 Candidates should be able to configure an FTP server for anonymous downloads and uploads. This objective includes precautions to be taken if anonymous uploads are permitted and configuring user access. Candidates should be able to configure an FTP server for anonymous downloads and uploads. This objective includes precautions to be taken if anonymous uploads are permitted and configuring user access.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Configuration files, tools and utilities for Pure-FTPd and vsftpd   * Configuration files, tools and utilities for Pure-FTPd and vsftpd
Zeile 1046: Zeile 1046:
   * Understanding of passive vs. active FTP connections ​   * Understanding of passive vs. active FTP connections ​
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * vsftpd.conf   * vsftpd.conf
   * important Pure-FTPd command line options ​   * important Pure-FTPd command line options ​
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[wpde>​File Transfer Protocol]]   * [[wpde>​File Transfer Protocol]]
   * [[FTP]]   * [[FTP]]
Zeile 1058: Zeile 1058:
 Candidates should be able to configure and secure an SSH daemon. This objective includes managing keys and configuring SSH for users. Candidates should also be able to forward an application protocol over SSH and manage the SSH login. Candidates should be able to configure and secure an SSH daemon. This objective includes managing keys and configuring SSH for users. Candidates should also be able to forward an application protocol over SSH and manage the SSH login.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * OpenSSH configuration files, tools and utilities   * OpenSSH configuration files, tools and utilities
Zeile 1065: Zeile 1065:
   * Usage of multiple connections from multiple hosts to guard against loss of connection to remote host following configuration changes ​   * Usage of multiple connections from multiple hosts to guard against loss of connection to remote host following configuration changes ​
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * ssh   * ssh
Zeile 1074: Zeile 1074:
   * PermitRootLogin,​ PubKeyAuthentication,​ AllowUsers, PasswordAuthentication,​ Protocol ​   * PermitRootLogin,​ PubKeyAuthentication,​ AllowUsers, PasswordAuthentication,​ Protocol ​
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[ssh]]   * [[ssh]]
 ==== 212.4 Security tasks (weight: 3) ==== ==== 212.4 Security tasks (weight: 3) ====
Zeile 1080: Zeile 1080:
 Candidates should be able to receive security alerts from various sources, install, configure and run intrusion detection systems and apply security patches and bugfixes. Candidates should be able to receive security alerts from various sources, install, configure and run intrusion detection systems and apply security patches and bugfixes.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * Tools and utilities to scan and test ports on a server   * Tools and utilities to scan and test ports on a server
Zeile 1087: Zeile 1087:
   * Awareness of OpenVAS and Snort   * Awareness of OpenVAS and Snort
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * telnet   * telnet
Zeile 1095: Zeile 1095:
   * iptables ​   * iptables ​
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[fail2ban]]   * [[fail2ban]]
   * [[wpde>​Bugtraq]]   * [[wpde>​Bugtraq]]
Zeile 1105: Zeile 1105:
 Candidates should be able to configure a VPN (Virtual Private Network) and create secure point-to-point or site-to-site connections. Candidates should be able to configure a VPN (Virtual Private Network) and create secure point-to-point or site-to-site connections.
  
-'''​Key Knowledge Areas:' ''​+==Key Knowledge Areas==
  
   * OpenVPN ​   * OpenVPN ​
  
-'''​The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:' ''​+==The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities==
  
   * /​etc/​openvpn/​*   * /​etc/​openvpn/​*
   * openvpn   * openvpn
  
-'''​Beispiele:' ''​+==Beispiele==
   * [[openvpn]]   * [[openvpn]]
  
Zeile 1138: Zeile 1138:
     *Understanding of consistency in backups, e.g. for databases     *Understanding of consistency in backups, e.g. for databases
     *Let's Encrypt for certification procurement     *Let's Encrypt for certification procurement
 +
lpi2/start.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2019/07/02 06:47 von ingo_wichmann